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Many two-dimensional parameter fields are provided in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution in grib1 format such as pressure, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed components at a height of 10m and 100m. Wind speed and wind direction at different fixed heights between 40m and 200m above ground are provided in netCDF format also in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution.A detailed list of two-and three-dimensional parameters can be found here: https://opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/REA/ParameterTables.pdf Three-dimensional parameter fields are provided in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution for temperature, specific humidity, wind speed components, and turbulent kinetic energy. For the three-dimensional fields, the lowest 6 COSMO model levels are available. The heights are invariant in time but change with topography. Over the ocean, the lowest 6 model levels correspond to a height of 10m, 35m, 69m, 116m, 178m and 258m. Constant parameters, e.g., the height of the model levels, the model surface, etc., are stored in ftp://opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/REA/COSMO_REA6/constant/. In addition, the geographical latitudes and longitudes relate to COSMO’s rotated longitude-latitude grid.
The free available dataset by the European Space Agency (ESA) contains the global landcover, which is divided into eleven classes: - Tree cover - Shrubland - Grassland - Cropland - Built-up - Bare/sparse vegetation - Snow and ice - Permanent water bodies - Herbaceous wetland - Mangroves - Moss and lichen. The landcover was originally derived from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data. There are 2651 tiles (3x3 degrees) at a spatial resolution of 10m, which can be downloaded as GeoTIFFs in the the EPSG:4326 projection (WGS84). For each tile there are two layers. One contains the land cover map and the other a three band GeoTIFF providing three per pixel quality indicators of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 input data.
To meet the demand for statistics at a local level, Eurostat maintains a system of Local Administrative Units (LAUs) compatible with NUTS. These LAUs are the building blocks of the NUTS, and comprise the municipalities and communes of the European Union. The LAUs are: - administrative for reasons such as the availability of data and policy implementation capacity; - a subdivision of the NUTS 3 regions covering the whole economic territory of the Member States; - appropriate for the implementation of local level typologies included in TERCET, namely the coastal area and DEGURBA classification. Since there are frequent changes to the LAUs, Eurostat publishes an updated list towards the end of each year. The LAUs are currently available from 2011 onwards. The NUTS regulation makes provision for EU Member States to send the lists of their LAUs to Eurostat. If available, Eurostat receives additionally basic administrative data by means of the annual LAU lists, namely total population and total area for each LAU.
Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method  we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 (spatial resolution: 3 arc-min, i.e. approximately 5.6 km at the equator). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as monthly average, minimum and maximum LST maps.  Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data available here for download are the reconstructed global MODIS LST products MOD11C1/MYD11C1 at a spatial resolution of 3 arc-min (approximately 5.6 km at the equator; see https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/dataset_discovery/modis/modis_products_table), aggregated to monthly data. The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11C1/MYD11C1 product as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: GEOGCS["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.9786982138982, AUTHORITY["EPSG","7008"]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0], UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. File name abbreviations: avg = average of daily averages min = minimum of daily minima max = maximum of daily maxima Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in degree Celsius * 100 (hence, to obtain °C divide the pixel values by 100.0).
Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Processing steps: The original hourly ERA5-Land air temperature 2 m above ground and dewpoint temperature 2 m data has been spatially enhanced from 0.1 degree to 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) spatial resolution by image fusion with CHELSA data (https://chelsa-climate.org/). Subsequently, the temperature time series have been aggregated on a daily basis. From these, daily relative humidity has been calculated for the time period 01/2000 - 07/2021. Relative humidity (rh2m) has been calculated from air temperature 2 m above ground (Ta) and dewpoint temperature 2 m above ground (Td) using the formula for saturated water pressure from Wright (1997): maximum water pressure = 611.21 * exp(17.502 * Ta / (240.97 + Ta)) actual water pressure = 611.21 * exp(17.502 * Td / (240.97 + Td)) relative humidity = actual water pressure / maximum water pressure Data provided is the daily averages of relative humidity. Resultant values have been converted to represent percent * 10, thus covering a theoretical range of [0, 1000]. File naming scheme (YYYY = year; MM = month; DD = day): ERA5_land_rh2m_avg_daily_YYYYMMDD.tif Projection + EPSG code: Latitude-Longitude/WGS84 (EPSG: 4326) Spatial extent: north: 82:00:30N south: 18N west: 32:00:30W east: 70E Spatial resolution: 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) Temporal resolution: Daily Pixel values: Percent * 10 (scaled to Integer; example: value 738 = 73.8 %) Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 Original dataset license: https://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/licences/copernicus/ Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Reference: Wright, J.M. (1997): Federal meteorological handbook no. 3 (FCM-H3-1997). Office of Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. Washington, DC Acknowledgements: This study was partially funded by EU grant 874850 MOOD. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and don't necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod13a1v006/ - MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MYD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/myd13a1v006/ The MOD/MYD13A1 Version 6 product provide Vegetation Index (VI) values at a per pixel basis at 500 meter (m) spatial resolution. There are two primary vegetation layers. The first is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is referred to as the continuity index to the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) derived NDVI. The second vegetation layer is the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which has improved sensitivity over high biomass regions. The algorithm for this product chooses the best available pixel value from all the acquisitions from the 16 day period. The criteria used is low clouds, low view angle, and the highest NDVI/EVI value. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 16 days. Bad quality pixels or pixels with snow/ice and/or cloud cover have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD13A1.A2020305_mosaic_1000m_16_days_NDVI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are NDVI/EVI * 10000. Example: Value 6473 = 0.6473
The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is responsible for the archive and distribution of NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 (NASADEM_SC) dataset, which provides global slope and curvature elevation data at 1 arc second spacing. NASADEM data products were derived from original telemetry data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a collaboration between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), as well as participation from the German and Italian space agencies. SRTM’s primary focus was to generate a near-global DEM of the Earth using radar interferometry. It was a primary component of the payload on space shuttle Endeavour during its STS-99 mission, which was launched on February 11, 2000, and ﬂew for 11 days. In addition to Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Version 3 data, NASADEM also relied on Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) ground control points of its lidar shots to improve surface elevation measurements that led to improved geolocation accuracy. Other reprocessing improvements include the conversion to geoid reference and the use of GDEMs and Advanced Land Observing Satellite Panchromatic Remote-sensing instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) AW3D30 DEM, and interpolation for void filling. NASADEM are distributed in 1° by 1° tiles and consist of all land between 60° N and 56° S latitude. This accounts for about 80% of Earth’s total landmass. NASADEM_SC data product layers include slope, aspect angle, profile curvature, plan curvature, and an updated SRTM water body dataset (water mask). A low-resolution browse image showing slope is also available for each NASADEM_SC granule.
Overview: The Essential Climate Variables for assessment of climate variability from 1979 to present dataset contains a selection of climatologies, monthly anomalies and monthly mean fields of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) suitable for monitoring and assessment of climate variability and change. Selection criteria are based on accuracy and temporal consistency on monthly to decadal time scales. The ECV data products in this set have been estimated from climate reanalyses ERA-Interim and ERA5, and, depending on the source, may have been adjusted to account for biases and other known deficiencies. Data sources and adjustment methods used are described in the Product User Guide, as are various particulars such as the baseline periods used to calculate monthly climatologies and the corresponding anomalies. Surface air relative humidity: The ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour to the equilibrium vapour pressure of water at the same temperature near the surface. Spatial resolution: 0:15:00 (0.25°) Temporal resolution: monthly Temporal extent: 1979 - present Data unit: percent * 10 Data type: UInt8 CRS as EPSG: EPSG:4326 Processing time delay: one month
When a natural disaster or disease outbreak occurs there is a rush to establish accurate health care location data that can be used to support people on the ground. This has been demonstrated by events such as the Haiti earthquake and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa. As a result valuable time is wasted establishing accurate and accessible baseline data. Healthsites.io establishes this data and the tools necessary to upload, manage and make the data easily accessible. Global scope The Global Healthsites Mapping Project is an initiative to create an online map of every health facility in the world and make the details of each location easily accessible. Open data collaboration Through collaborations with users, trusted partners and OpenStreetMap the Global Healthsites Mapping Project will capture and validate the location and contact details of every facility and make this data freely available under an Open Data License (ODBL). Accessible The Global Healthsites Mapping Project will make the data accessible over the Internet through an API and other formats such as GeoJSON, Shapefile, KML, CSV. Focus on health care location data The Global Healthsites Mapping Project's design philosophy is the long term curation and validation of health care location data. The healthsites.io map will enable users to discover what healthcare facilities exist at any global location and the associated services and resources.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Data are collected using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data are then made available under the Open Database License.