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  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 (spatial resolution: 3 arc-min, i.e. approximately 5.6 km at the equator). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as monthly average, minimum and maximum LST maps. [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data available here for download are the reconstructed global MODIS LST products MOD11C1/MYD11C1 at a spatial resolution of 3 arc-min (approximately 5.6 km at the equator; see https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/dataset_discovery/modis/modis_products_table), aggregated to monthly data. The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11C1/MYD11C1 product as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: GEOGCS["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.9786982138982, AUTHORITY["EPSG","7008"]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0], UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. File name abbreviations: avg = average of daily averages min = minimum of daily minima max = maximum of daily maxima Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in degree Celsius * 100 (hence, to obtain °C divide the pixel values by 100.0).

  • OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Data are collected using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data are then made available under the Open Database License.

  • The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is responsible for the archive and distribution of NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 (NASADEM_SC) dataset, which provides global slope and curvature elevation data at 1 arc second spacing. NASADEM data products were derived from original telemetry data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a collaboration between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), as well as participation from the German and Italian space agencies. SRTM’s primary focus was to generate a near-global DEM of the Earth using radar interferometry. It was a primary component of the payload on space shuttle Endeavour during its STS-99 mission, which was launched on February 11, 2000, and flew for 11 days. In addition to Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Version 3 data, NASADEM also relied on Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) ground control points of its lidar shots to improve surface elevation measurements that led to improved geolocation accuracy. Other reprocessing improvements include the conversion to geoid reference and the use of GDEMs and Advanced Land Observing Satellite Panchromatic Remote-sensing instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) AW3D30 DEM, and interpolation for void filling. NASADEM are distributed in 1° by 1° tiles and consist of all land between 60° N and 56° S latitude. This accounts for about 80% of Earth’s total landmass. NASADEM_SC data product layers include slope, aspect angle, profile curvature, plan curvature, and an updated SRTM water body dataset (water mask). A low-resolution browse image showing slope is also available for each NASADEM_SC granule.

  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11A1/MYD11A1 (spatial resolution: 1 km). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as daily LST maps at overpass time (approx: 01:30 am, 10:30am, 1:30pm 10:30pm). [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11A1/MYD11A1 product (Sinusoidal) as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: PROJCRS["unnamed", BASEGEOGCRS["Unknown datum based upon the custom spheroid", DATUM["Not specified (based on custom spheroid)", ELLIPSOID["Custom spheroid",6371007.181,0, LENGTHUNIT["metre",1, ID["EPSG",9001]]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433, ID["EPSG",9122]]]], CONVERSION["unnamed", METHOD["Sinusoidal"], PARAMETER["Longitude of natural origin",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433], ID["EPSG",8802]], PARAMETER["False easting",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8806]], PARAMETER["False northing",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8807]]], CS[Cartesian,2], AXIS["easting",east, ORDER[1], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]], AXIS["northing",north, ORDER[2], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in Kelvin * 50 Data type: raster, UInt16 Spatial resolution: 926.62543314 m Spatial extent Sinusoidal (W, S, E, N): 0, 4447802.079066, 2223901.039533, 6671703.118599 Spatial extent in EPSG:4326 (W, S, E, N): 0, 40, 40, 60

  • Northern Italy Land Surface Temperature 1km daily Celsius gap-filled datasetLST daily avg, 2010 - 2018, reconstructed format: GRASS GIS raster format ZLIB compressed stored as a GRASS GIS 7 location/mapset Projection: EU LAEA (EPSG:3035)Reference: Metz, M.; Andreo, V.; Neteler, M. A New Fully Gap-Free Time Series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1333. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333

  • This dataset contains areas by degree of urbanisation (revised definition, 2018). The degree of urbanisation classifies local administrative units (LAU in Europe into three categories: thinly (rural), intermediate (towns and suburbs or small urban) and densely populated (cities or large urban) areas. The classification is based on a population distribution grid with raster cells of 1 sqkm size. Data are available for EU countries, Norway, Switzerland, Serbia and Iceland. The data is available at 1:100 000 resolution for internal commission users and a generalised 1:1 000 000 resolution is available to the public via the GISCO Dedicated Section on the Eurostat website. Classification based on method described in manual on Territitorial typologies in consulation with Member states.

  • The Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 is a product resulting from the Phase 2 of the S2GLC project. The final map has been produced on the CREODIAS platform with algorithms and software developed by CBK PAN. Classification of over 15 000 Sentinel-2 images required high level of automation that was assured by the developed software. The legend of the resulting Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 consists of 13 land cover classes. The pixel size of the map equals 10 m, which corresponds to the highest spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imagery. Its overall accuracy was estimated to be at the level of 86% using approximately 52 000 validation samples distributed across Europe. Related publication: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523

  • Regional model ICON-D2 The DWD's ICON-D2 model is a forecast model which is operated for the very-short range up to +27 hours (+45 hours for the 03 UTC run). Due to its fine mesh size, the ICON-D2 especially provides for improved forecasts of hazardous weather conditions, e.g. weather situations with high-level moisture convection (super and multi-cell thunderstorms, squall lines, mesoscale convective complexes) and weather events that are influenced by fine-scale topographic effects (ground fog, Föhn winds, intense downslope winds, flash floods). The model area of ICON-D2 covers the whole German territory, Benelux, Switzerland, Austria and parts of the other neighbouring countries at a horizontal resolution of 2.2 km. In the vertical, the model defines 65 atmosphere levels. The fairly short forecast periods make perfect sense because of the purpose of ICON-D2 (and its small model area). Based on model runs at 00, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18 and 21 UTC, ICON-D2 provides new 27-hour forecasts every 3 hours. The model run at 03 UTC even covers a forecast period of 45 hours. The ICON-D2 forecast data for each weather element are made available in standard packages at our free DWD Open Data Server, both on a rotated grid and on a regular grid. Regional ensemble forecast model ICON-D2 EPS The ensemble forecasting system ICON-D2 EPS is based on the DWD's numerical weather forecast model ICON-D2 and currently includes 20 ensemble members. All ensemble members are calculated at the same horizontal grid spacing as the operational configuration of ICON-D2 (2.2 km). Like ICON-D2, the ICON-D2 EPS ensemble system provides forecasts up to +27 hours for the same model area (up to +45 hours based on the 03 UTC run). For generating the ensemble members, some of the features of the forecasting system are changed. The method currently used to generate the ensemble members involves varying the - lateral boundary conditions - initial state - soil moisture - and model physics. For varying the lateral boundary conditions and the initial state, forecasts from various global models are used. The ICON-D2 EPS is provided on the DWD Open Data Server in the native triangular grid. Note: All previously COSMO-D2 based aviation weather products have been migrated to ICON-D2 on 10.02.2021. However, the familiar design of these products remains unchanged.

  • Many two-dimensional parameter fields are provided in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution in grib1 format such as pressure, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed components at a height of 10m and 100m. Wind speed and wind direction at different fixed heights between 40m and 200m above ground are provided in netCDF format also in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution.A detailed list of two-and three-dimensional parameters can be found here: https://opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/REA/ParameterTables.pdf Three-dimensional parameter fields are provided in hourly, daily, and monthly resolution for temperature, specific humidity, wind speed components, and turbulent kinetic energy. For the three-dimensional fields, the lowest 6 COSMO model levels are available. The heights are invariant in time but change with topography. Over the ocean, the lowest 6 model levels correspond to a height of 10m, 35m, 69m, 116m, 178m and 258m. Constant parameters, e.g., the height of the model levels, the model surface, etc., are stored in ftp://opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/REA/COSMO_REA6/constant/. In addition, the geographical latitudes and longitudes relate to COSMO’s rotated longitude-latitude grid.

  • The Copernicus DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) which represents the surface of the Earth including buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. We provide two instances of Copernicus DEM named GLO-30 Public and GLO-90. GLO-90 provides worldwide coverage at 90 meters. GLO-30 Public provides limited worldwide coverage at 30 meters because a small subset of tiles covering specific countries are not yet released to the public by the Copernicus Programme. Note that in both cases ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. Two releases (i.e. 2019 and 2020) are currently available for all Copernicus DEM instances with the exception of COP-DEM_GLO-30-DTED_PUBLIC and COP-DEM_GLO-30-DGED_PUBLIC, only available as 2019 release. A full collection of tiles per each release can be found via FTP and PANDA Catalogue under dataset names marked with “2019_1” and “2020_1”. The 2020 release has undergone the following improvements with respect to the 2019 release: - infilling with high resolution DEM over Norway; - addition of 5 geocells containing missing small islands; - editing of source raw data; - correction of minor data/auxiliary files inconsistencies; - correction of implausible values. The products impacted by improvements can be identified via a dedicated list: https://spacedata.copernicus.eu/documents/20126/0/COP-DEM_delivery_sheet_v0.7_PUBLIC+%282%29.xlsx/771ce82f-0084-849d-8a34-702c421eacf2?t=1611651454540