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  • This service visualizes land system archetypes data. Land use is a key driver of global environmental change. Unless major shifts in consumptive behaviours occur, land-based production will have to increase drastically to meet future demands for food and other commodities. To better understand the drivers and impacts of agricultural intensification, identifying global, archetypical patterns of land systems is needed. However, current approaches focus on broad-scale representations of dominant land cover with limited consideration of land-use intensity. In this study, we derived a new global representation of land systems based on more than 30 high-resolution datasets on land-use intensity, environmental conditions and socioeconomic indicators. Using a self-organizing map algorithm, we identified and mapped twelve archetypes of land systems for the year 2005. Our analysis reveals unexpected similarities in land systems across the globe but the diverse pattern at sub-national scales implies that there are no one-size-fits-all solutions to sustainable land management. Our results help to identify generic patterns of land pressures and environmental threats and provide means to target regionalized strategies to cope with the challenges of global change. Mapping global archetypes of land systems represents a first step towards better understanding the driving forces and environmental and social outcomes of land system dynamics.

  • Base epoch 2015 from the Collection 3 of annual, global 100m land cover maps. Other available (consolidated) epochs: 2016 2017 2018 2019 Produced by the global component of the Copernicus Land Service, derived from PROBA-V satellite observations and ancillary datasets. The maps include: - a main discrete classification with 23 classes aligned with UN-FAO's Land Cover Classification System, - a set of versatile cover fractions: percentage (%) of ground cover for the 10 main classes - - a forest type layer quality layers on input data density Online map viewer: https://lcviewer.vito.be

  • OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Data are collected using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data are then made available under the Open Database License.

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 96.7% / 94.3% (1410) low vegetation: 70.6% / 84.0% (844) water: 98.5% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 98.2% / 89.8% (983) bare soil: 19.7% / 58.5% (41) agriculture: 91.7% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 95.0% / 93.8% (1410) low vegetation: 73.4% / 86.5% (844) water: 98.5% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 98.9% / 95.8% (983) bare soil: 23.9% / 82.9% (41) agriculture: 94.6% / 83.2% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 91.9% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 98.1% / 95.9% (1410) low vegetation: 76.4% / 91.5% (844) water: 98.4% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 99.2% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 35.1% / 95.1% (41) agriculture: 95.9% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This change map was produced on the basis of a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2019 and 2020. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/9246503f-6adf-460b-a31e-73a649182d07 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019/2020), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This change map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2016 and 2019. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/db130a09-fc2e-421d-95e2-1575e7c4b45c https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016/2019), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending