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  • Northern Italy Land Surface Temperature 1km daily Celsius gap-filled datasetLST daily avg, 2010 - 2018, reconstructed format: GRASS GIS raster format ZLIB compressed stored as a GRASS GIS 7 location/mapset Projection: EU LAEA (EPSG:3035)Reference: Metz, M.; Andreo, V.; Neteler, M. A New Fully Gap-Free Time Series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1333. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Surface temperature: Temperature of the surface of the Earth. The skin temperature is the theoretical temperature that is required to satisfy the surface energy balance. It represents the temperature of the uppermost surface layer, which has no heat capacity and so can respond instantaneously to changes in surface fluxes. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the spatial resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA Data available is the daily average, minimum and maximum of surface temperature. Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 (r.resamp.stats -w; r.relief) Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11A1/MYD11A1 (spatial resolution: 1 km). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11A1/MYD11A1 product (Sinusoidal) as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: PROJCRS["unnamed", BASEGEOGCRS["Unknown datum based upon the custom spheroid", DATUM["Not specified (based on custom spheroid)", ELLIPSOID["Custom spheroid",6371007.181,0, LENGTHUNIT["metre",1, ID["EPSG",9001]]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433, ID["EPSG",9122]]]], CONVERSION["unnamed", METHOD["Sinusoidal"], PARAMETER["Longitude of natural origin",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433], ID["EPSG",8802]], PARAMETER["False easting",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8806]], PARAMETER["False northing",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8807]]], CS[Cartesian,2], AXIS["easting",east, ORDER[1], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]], AXIS["northing",north, ORDER[2], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in Kelvin * 50 Data type: raster, UInt16 Spatial resolution: 926.62543314 m Spatial extent Sinusoidal (W, S, E, N): 0, 4447802.079066, 2223901.039533, 6671703.118599 Spatial extent in EPSG:4326 (W, S, E, N): 0, 40, 40, 60 [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333

  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 (spatial resolution: 3 arc-min, i.e. approximately 5.6 km at the equator). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as monthly average, minimum and maximum LST maps. [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data available here for download are the reconstructed global MODIS LST products MOD11C1/MYD11C1 at a spatial resolution of 3 arc-min (approximately 5.6 km at the equator; see https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/dataset_discovery/modis/modis_products_table), aggregated to monthly data. The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11C1/MYD11C1 product as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: GEOGCS["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.9786982138982, AUTHORITY["EPSG","7008"]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0], UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. File name abbreviations: avg = average of daily averages min = minimum of daily minima max = maximum of daily maxima Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in degree Celsius * 100 (hence, to obtain °C divide the pixel values by 100.0).

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    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod13a1v006/ - MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MYD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/myd13a1v006/ The MOD/MYD13A1 Version 6 product provide Vegetation Index (VI) values at a per pixel basis at 500 meter (m) spatial resolution. There are two primary vegetation layers. The first is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is referred to as the continuity index to the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) derived NDVI. The second vegetation layer is the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which has improved sensitivity over high biomass regions. The algorithm for this product chooses the best available pixel value from all the acquisitions from the 16 day period. The criteria used is low clouds, low view angle, and the highest NDVI/EVI value. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 16 days. Bad quality pixels or pixels with snow/ice and/or cloud cover have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD13A1.A2020305_mosaic_1000m_16_days_NDVI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are NDVI/EVI * 10000. Example: Value 6473 = 0.6473

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Surface temperature: Temperature of the surface of the Earth. The skin temperature is the theoretical temperature that is required to satisfy the surface energy balance. It represents the temperature of the uppermost surface layer, which has no heat capacity and so can respond instantaneously to changes in surface fluxes. Processing steps: The original hourly ERA5-Land data has been spatially enhanced from 0.1 degree to 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) spatial resolution by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA The spatially enhanced daily ERA5-Land data has been aggregated on a weekly basis (starting from Saturday) for the time period 2016 - 2020. Data available is the weekly average of daily averages, the weekly minimum of daily minima and the weekly maximum of daily maxima of surface temperature. File naming: Average of daily average: era5_land_ts_avg_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Max of daily max: era5_land_ts_max_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Min of daily min: era5_land_ts_min_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif The date in the file name determines the start day of the week (Saturday). Pixel values: °C * 10 Example: Value 302 = 30.2 °C The QML or SLD style files can be used for visualization of the temperature layers. Coordinate reference system: ETRS89 / LAEA Europe (EPSG:3035) (EPSG:3035) Spatial extent: north: 82N south: 18S west: -32W east: 61E Spatial resolution: 1 km Temporal resolution: weekly Time period: 01/01/2016 - 12/31/2020 Format: GeoTIFF Representation type: Grid Software used: GRASS 8.0 Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122 Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Contact: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, info@mundialis.de Acknowledgements: This study was partially funded by EU grant 874850 MOOD. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and don't necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

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    Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD09A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod09a1v006/ The corresponding MODIS/Aqua product (MYD09A1 v006) could not be used due to the fact that the Aqua satellite has a number of broken detectors resulting in unreliable data for band 6 (SWIR) measurements. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra MOD09A1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of Terra MODIS Bands 1 through 7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses, aerosols, and Rayleigh scattering. Along with the seven 500 meter (m) reflectance bands are two quality layers and four observation bands. For each pixel, a value is selected from all the acquisitions within the 8-day composite period. The criteria for the pixel choice include cloud and solar zenith. When several acquisitions meet the criteria the pixel with the minimum channel 3 (blue) value is used. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 8 days. Bad quality pixels (cloud, cloud shadow, dead detector, solar zenith angle too large, etc.) have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD09A1.A2016353_mosaic_1000m_8_days_MNDWI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are MNDWI * 10000. Example: Value -5099 = -0.5099

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Air temperature (2 m): Temperature of air at 2m above the surface of land, sea or in-land waters. 2m temperature is calculated by interpolating between the lowest model level and the Earth's surface, taking account of the atmospheric conditions. Processing steps: The original hourly ERA5-Land data has been spatially enhanced from 0.1 degree to 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) spatial resolution by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA The spatially enhanced daily ERA5-Land data has been aggregated on a weekly basis starting from Saturday for the time period 2016 - 2020. Data available is the weekly average of daily averages, the weekly minimum of daily minima and the weekly maximum of daily maxima of air temperature (2 m). File naming: Average of daily average: era5_land_t2m_avg_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Max of daily max: era5_land_t2m_max_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Min of daily min: era5_land_t2m_min_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif The date in the file name determines the start day of the week (Saturday). Pixel value: °C * 10 Example: Value 44 = 4.4 °C The QML or SLD style files can be used for visualization of the temperature layers. Coordinate reference system: ETRS89 / LAEA Europe (EPSG:3035) (EPSG:3035) Spatial extent: north: 82:00:30N south: 18N west: 32:00:30W east: 70E Spatial resolution: 1km Temporal resolution: weekly Time period: 01/01/2016 - 12/31/2020 Format: GeoTIFF Representation type: Grid Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 (r.resamp.stats -w; r.relief) Lineage: Dataset has been processed from original Copernicus Climate Data Store (ERA5-Land) data sources. As auxiliary data CHELSA climate data has been used. Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122 Other resources: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/601ea08c-0768-4af3-a8fa-7da25fb9125b Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Contact: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, info@mundialis.de Acknowledgements: This study was partially funded by EU grant 874850 MOOD. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and don't necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Air temperature (2 m): Temperature of air at 2m above the surface of land, sea or in-land waters. 2m temperature is calculated by interpolating between the lowest model level and the Earth's surface, taking account of the atmospheric conditions. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the spatial resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc seconds (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA Data available is the daily average, minimum and maximum of air temperature (2 m). Spatial resolution: 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) Temporal resolution: Daily Pixel values: °C * 10 (scaled to Integer; example: value 238 = 23.8 %) Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 (r.resamp.stats -w; r.relief) Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

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    Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Processing steps: The original hourly ERA5-Land air temperature 2 m above ground and dewpoint temperature 2 m data has been spatially enhanced from 0.1 degree to 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) spatial resolution by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds. 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA Subsequently, the temperature time series have been aggregated on a daily basis. From these, daily relative humidity has been calculated for the time period 01/2000 - 07/2021. Relative humidity (rh2m) has been calculated from air temperature 2 m above ground (Ta) and dewpoint temperature 2 m above ground (Td) using the formula for saturated water pressure from Wright (1997): maximum water pressure = 611.21 * exp(17.502 * Ta / (240.97 + Ta)) actual water pressure = 611.21 * exp(17.502 * Td / (240.97 + Td)) relative humidity = actual water pressure / maximum water pressure Data provided is the daily averages of relative humidity. This set provides data for the years 2000 - 2004. For other time periods, please see further linked data sets. Resultant values have been converted to represent percent * 10, thus covering a theoretical range of [0, 1000]. File naming scheme (YYYY = year; MM = month; DD = day): ERA5_land_rh2m_avg_daily_YYYYMMDD.tif Projection + EPSG code: Latitude-Longitude/WGS84 (EPSG: 4326) Spatial extent: north: 82:00:30N south: 18N west: 32:00:30W east: 70E Spatial resolution: 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) Temporal resolution: Daily Pixel values: Percent * 10 (scaled to Integer; example: value 738 = 73.8 %) Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/licences/copernicus/ CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122 Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Reference: Wright, J.M. (1997): Federal meteorological handbook no. 3 (FCM-H3-1997). Office of Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. Washington, DC Acknowledgements: This study was partially funded by EU grant 874850 MOOD. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and don't necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.