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  • This change map was produced on the basis of a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2019 and 2020. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/9246503f-6adf-460b-a31e-73a649182d07 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019/2020), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 96.7% / 94.3% (1410) low vegetation: 70.6% / 84.0% (844) water: 98.5% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 98.2% / 89.8% (983) bare soil: 19.7% / 58.5% (41) agriculture: 91.7% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This change map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2016 and 2019. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/db130a09-fc2e-421d-95e2-1575e7c4b45c https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016/2019), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • The Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 is a product resulting from the Phase 2 of the S2GLC project. The final map has been produced on the CREODIAS platform with algorithms and software developed by CBK PAN. Classification of over 15 000 Sentinel-2 images required high level of automation that was assured by the developed software. The legend of the resulting Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 consists of 13 land cover classes. The pixel size of the map equals 10 m, which corresponds to the highest spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imagery. Its overall accuracy was estimated to be at the level of 86% using approximately 52 000 validation samples distributed across Europe. Related publication: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523

  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 95.0% / 93.8% (1410) low vegetation: 73.4% / 86.5% (844) water: 98.5% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 98.9% / 95.8% (983) bare soil: 23.9% / 82.9% (41) agriculture: 94.6% / 83.2% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 91.9% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 98.1% / 95.9% (1410) low vegetation: 76.4% / 91.5% (844) water: 98.4% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 99.2% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 35.1% / 95.1% (41) agriculture: 95.9% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending